December 8, 2016
This post originally appeared on OCC.
The OCC’s chartering authority includes the authority to charter special purpose national banks. In fact, many special purpose national banks are operating today—primarily trust banks and credit card banks. A question raised by technological advances in financial services and evolving customer preferences is whether it would be appropriate for the OCC to consider granting a special purpose national bank charter to a fintech company. For a number of reasons, the OCC believes it may be in the public interest to do so.
First, applying a bank regulatory framework to fintech companies will help ensure that these companies operate in a safe and sound manner so that they can effectively serve the needs of customers, businesses, and communities, just as banks do that operate under full-service charters. Second, applying the OCC’s uniform supervision over national banks, including fintech companies, will help promote consistency in the application of law and regulation across the country and ensure that consumers are treated fairly.Third, providing a path for fintech companies to become national banks can make the federal banking system stronger. The OCC’s oversight not only would help ensure that these companies operate in a safe and sound manner, it would also encourage them to explore new ways to promote fair access and financial inclusion and innovate responsibly. Fintech companies vary widely in their business models and product offerings. Some are marketplace lenders providing loans to consumers and small businesses, others offer payment-related services, others engage in digital currencies and distributed ledger technology, and still others provide financial planning and wealth management products and services.
If the OCC decides to grant a charter to a particular fintech company, the institution would be held to the same rigorous standards of safety and soundness, fair access, and fair treatment of customers that apply to all national banks and federal savings associations. The OCC acknowledges, however, that to approve a fintech charter the agency may need to account for differences in business models and the applicability of certain laws. For example, a fintech company with a special purpose national charter that does not take deposits, and therefore is not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), would not be subject to laws that apply only to insured depository institutions.
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